Fujitsu and Osaka University develop new quantum computing architecture, accelerating progress toward practical application of quantum computers

Fujitsu and Osaka University’s Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Biology (QIQB) revealed the development of a new, highly efficient analog rotation quantum computing architecture, representing a significant milestone toward the realization of practical quantum computing. The new architecture reduces the number of physical qubits required for quantum error correction – a prerequisite for the realization of fault-tolerant quantum computing – by 90% from 1 million to 10,000 qubits. This breakthrough will allow research to embark on the construction of a quantum computer with 10,000 physical qubits and 64 logical qubits, which corresponds to computing performance of approximately 100,000 times that of the peak performance of conventional high performance computers.

Moving forward, Fujitsu and Osaka University will further refine this new architecture to lead the development of quantum computers in the early FTQC era, with the aim of applying quantum computing applications to a wide range of practical societal issues including material development and finance.

Error correction for fault-tolerant computing: making practical quantum a reality Gate-based quantum computers are expected to revolutionize research in a wide range of fields including quantum chemistry and complex financial systems, as they will offer significantly higher calculation performance than current classical computers.

Logical qubits, which consist of multiple physical qubits, play a major key role in quantum error correction technology, and ultimately the realization of practical quantum computers that can provide fault-tolerant results.

Within conventional quantum computing architectures, calculations are performed using a combination of four error-corrected universal quantum gates (CNOT, H, S, and T gate). Within these architectures, especially quantum error correction for T-gates requires a large number of physical qubits, and rotation of the state vector in the quantum calculation requires repeated logical T-gate operations for approximately fifty times on average. Thus, the realization of a genuine fault-tolerant quantum computer is estimated to require more than one million physical qubits in total.

For this reason, quantum computers in the early FTQC era using conventional architecture for quantum error correction can only conduct calculations on a very limited scale below that of classical computers, as they work with a maximum of about 10,000 physical qubits, a number far below that required for genuine, fault-tolerant quantum computing.

To address these issues, Fujitsu and Osaka University developed a new, highly efficient analog rotation quantum computing architecture that is able to significantly reduce the number of physical qubits required for quantum error correction, and enable even quantum computers with 10,000 physical qubits to perform better than current classical computers, accelerating progress toward the realization of genuine, fault-tolerant quantum computing.

Fujitsu and Osaka University have been promoting joint R&D in quantum error correction technology including new quantum computation architectures for the early FTQC era at the “Fujitsu Quantum Computing Joint Research Division,” a collaborative research effort of the QIQB, established on October 1, 2021 at the campus of Osaka University as part of Fujitsu’s “Fujitsu Small Research Laboratory” program.

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